Apply Farm Yard Manure and Grow Fodder grass in Your Farm to Mitigate Effects of Climate Change

Ottawa, 25 August, 2015. A recent research article published by a team of scientists lead by a CFFN scientist reports that utilization of farm yard manure (FYM) and cropping fodder grasses help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural fields. Dr. Bharat Shrestha, an environmental researcher affiliated to CFFN, and his team evaluated the soil organic matter (SOM) quantity and quality in a long-term experimental farm in southern Norway.  The experimental farm has been operational since 1953 with 6-year crop rotation cycles testing different crop combinations and different rate of nutrient applications. Another tillage experiment was started in 1983 with no-tillage and conventional tillage in the same experimental farm. They collected soil samples in summer of 2009. Soils were evaluated for physical and chemical soil parameters focusing mainly on different carbon species. They quantified the abundance of labile and recalcitrant carbon species in soil samples utilizing an advanced technology called nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in an Italian university.

No tillage soybean farm (Wikipedia)

No tillage soybean farm (Wikipedia)

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A Memorandum of understanding has been signed between Canada Foundation for Nepal (CFFN) Canada and International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Nepal office to pursue collaborative research in the areas of mutual interest such as sustainable development of Nepal, equitable management and use of natural resources, rural and urban planning, and development and dissemination of knowledge and information. Currently, both parties are working for the publication of a book titled, “Sustainable Rural Livelihood Systems in Nepal”.

Book Project Update – 2012 Annual General Meeting Report

Book Project: Sustainable Livelihood System in Rural Nepal

One of the major objectives of CFFN is to facilitate research activities focusing on the economic development of Nepal.  The book is aimed for a wide audience including academia, practitioners, program planners and policy makers. The book will cover six key themes of sustainable livelihood system that include a mosaic of subsistence agriculture, natural resource management, off-farm income source, social equity and justice, health and hygiene and capacity building.

This book project aims to contribute towards the sustainable development of rural society, which is in line with the CFFN’s objective to help Nepal and Nepalese people for their social and economic development.

This book will have certain unique traits that will differentiate it from the many text books and reference books being produced in Nepal in this topic. First, the book chapters will be contributed by distinguished expert researchers, and professionals in the respective fields of their expertise in the development of rural Nepal. The book chapters will translate their scientific knowledge, skills and experiences to social science for the sustainable livelihood systems in rural areas. Secondly, the book will add value by contributing an international perspective and comparative analysis. Further, it will address different aspects of livelihood of rural population in Nepal from the sustainability lenses.

Broad themes of the book chapters

  1. Sustainable Crop and Livestock Farming
  2. Sustainable Natural Resource Management
  3. Integrated Community Development
  4. Food Security and Socio-Economic Dimensions
  5. Off-Farm Activities and Income for Rural Livelihood

Members of the Editorial Board

  1. Prof. Ambika Adhikari, Chief Editor
  2. Dr. Kalidas Subedi
  3. Mr. Michael Cassey
  4. Dr. Drona Rasali
  5. Dr. Bharat Shrestha
  6. Dr. Bhim Adhikari
  7. Dr. Bishwa Regmi
  8. Dr. Krishna Hari Gautam
  9. Dr. Ishara Mahat
  10. Dr. Govinda Dahal
  1. Initial invitation to contribute a book chapter was sent to potential authors before the start of winter holiday season
  2. Three meetings of editorial board have been organized (Feb 12, March 22 and May 27, 2012) that refined the themes of the book, finalized the framework and guidelines to the authors
  3. Final framework of the book and guideline to the authors  have been provided to theme editors to send to the potential authors of respective theme
  4. Till now total 33 authors have expressed their willingness to contribute book chapters
  5. The editorial board is searching a potential publisher in coordination of the chief editor

Some points still under discussion

  1. How to publish an economic edition of the book – as the western publication will be too expensive to afford for users in the developing countries
  2. If CFFN need to publish itself, how to afford the cost of the publication

Any suggestions and questions are welcome. For further information please write to or visit

Thank you,

Ishara Mahat
Bharat Shrestha


Invitation for Contribution to ‘Sustainable Livelihood System in Rural Nepal’

Canada Foundation for Nepal (CFFN) is a registered not–for–profit organization dedicated to advance research and education and economic development programs related to Nepal. CFFN has been active in several programs and projects in these areas. It has organized several conferences in topics related to Nepal’s development, and it is also a major partner in the Open University of Nepal initiative. Further information on CFFN is available at Continue reading

Sustainable Livelihood System in Rural Nepal

A brief overview of the theme of the book and guidelines for the authors

Overview of the Book

This book project is launched by Canada Foundation for Nepal (CFFN). One of the major objectives of CFFN is to facilitate research activities focused on the economic development of Nepal. CFFN is a major partner in the currently ongoing Initiative for Open University of Nepal, (OUN) which began almost two years ago. OUN is a collaborative project of NRNA, CFFN and the Government of Nepal, while Athabasca University of Alberta, Canada is the chief technical and academic supporter for the Initiative.

The proposed book was conceived to achieve several goals. It will be a text or reference book for college level students, both undergraduate and graduate, in Nepali universities. It is also being designed as a text book for the upcoming OUN for rural development program, and which can also serve as a reference for policy makers, international development experts concerned with rural development in Nepal and domestic experts and consultants interested in the field. Continue reading

Update 005: Open University of Nepal Initiative

Dear Supporters of Open University of Nepal (OUN) Initiative:

Some notable progress have been made since our update of August 1, 2011. The highlights of this period are given here.

  1. August 15, 2011: Jiwan Giri and his organization donated a modern document digitization machine to OUNI. The machine has been already brought to Nepal and operating know-how has been transferred to Nepali technicians. A model to generate funds for OUNI with the services that can be offered to other institutions have been developed.
  2. August 15, 2011: Dr. Lawa Deo Awasthi beceme the new Joint-Secretary of the Ministery of Education and therefore the new member of the OUNI Steering Committee.
  3. August 26, 2011: Athabasca University donated 20 laptops for the pilot academic program of the Open University of Nepal Initiative. The laptops were handed over to NRN-Canada President Dr. Binod KC and NECASE President Moha Nath Acharya by the Director of Distance Education of Athabasca University Dr. Mohamed Ally in Edmonton, Canada in a public program.
  4. September 15, 2011: NRNA delegation including President Dev Man Hirachan, Patron Bhim Udas, Executive Director Rajesh Rana and OUNSC Member-Secretary presented a case for OUNI to Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Finister Hon. Narayan Kaji Shrestha.
  5. September 15, 2011: Member Secretary Pramod Dhakal handed over the concept paper of the OUNI to the Prime Minister of Nepal Dr. Baburam Bhattarai, who was also extended with was an invitation to OUN Stekeholder Meeting to be held on October 11, 2011.
  6. October 11, 2011: OUNSC with kind hosting of Ministry of Education and NRNA is organizing a Open University of Nepal Initiative Stakeholder Meeting at Hotel Soaltee Crown Plaza with the Prime Minister of Nepal Dr. Baburam Bhattarai as the Chief Guest, the president of ICDE Dr. Frits Pannekoek as Keynote Speaker.

Open University of Nepal: A Mission to Learning and Innovation and Soverignty

By Dr. Pramod Dhakal

Before the exploit of modern humans touched my mountain village, we walked barefoot on its trails, forests, and terraces, even to go to Baglung Bazaar for writing School Leaving Certificate (SLC) examination. I felt sophisticated in buying my first toothbrush while taking tuition classes in Painyupata for SLC. Radio and/or wristwatch were off-access even when studying at elite Tri-Chandra College in Kathmandu. It was a matter of status when my brother bought a radio after becoming a clerk of our village school. But no one today walks barefoot in my village, no one wears the worn-out clothes like we did, no one walks for days to go anywhere useful, and almost everyone today carries a mobile phone. Today, our village home has electricity, television, toilet, and tap drinking water. These amenities are coming near the reach of other villagers and young folks know more about technology than my brother, a school principal. The coming of the information age and globalization is changing the face of my village. However, this globalization of new era has pushed us towards greater dependency and vulnerability. Unable to find their means of survival in the country, village youths are taking menial temporary jobs in Middle East and elsewhere. Local production is diminishing and goods are imported, including food stuff. If someone were to block the supply (e.g. fuel) for ten days, most people of urban cities in Nepal would not be able to eat and there would be massive riots turning upside down. Perilous is this magical modern world for a small and poor country like Nepal that is still struggling to develop its capacity to ensure even basic survival of its people in case something unwanted happens. Should not it necessitate us to seek new ways for our survival?

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CFFN Concern Nepal Year 6, Issue 1

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Year 6, No 1, Issue 8 - October 2011

Click here to download this edition as a .pdf file.

Canada Foundation for Nepal has released its eighth issue of Concern Nepal. This issue is prefaced by CFFN’s new Executive Director, who reaffirms the organization’s commitment to several education-specific initiatives, namely Open University of Nepal, Community Child Care Centres. The AGM report discusses the key changes in CFFN’s executives, as well as the addition of new positions within the organization. This issue contains featured articles written by each executive member on a range of matters important to the various CFFN initiatives, as well as research papers discussing development opportunities in Nepal. We invite you to enjoy the reading of our publication and get involved and contribute to Concern Nepal by sending news, views, op-ed writings and research articles.

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Production possibility of Biofuel in Nepal

By Dr. Bharat Shrestha





Alternative sources of petroleum fuel have always been discussed because of petroleum fuel’s ever increasing price, its non-renewable nature and negative effect on the global climate. Several sources of alternative energy are identified and are in use, such as solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, geothermal energy, biogas energy etc. Global climate change is forcing society to find environmentally friendly energy such that carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions can be reduced. Biofuel is considered as one of the environmentally friendly source of energies because of its recyclable nature. Some sources of biofuels are shown in the picture above.

Biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon (C) fixation. Biofuels include fuels derived from biomass conversion, as well as solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases1. This is an alternative to petroleum fuels with less CO2 emission to the atmosphere. The logic behind considering it as an environmentally friendly energy is that biologically fixed C (carbon) will be converted into biofuel and the emitted CO2 from burning of this fuel will be captured again by plants through photosynthesis. In this way it will not add more CO2 into the atmosphere like the burning of fossil fuel. Thus, it has been considered as an option to mitigate the effect of global warming.

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Conducting Research: Rhetoric vs. Reality

By Dr. Ishara Mahat

“Research is about asking right questions than finding the right answers”

When thinking about research, we often struggle with identifying the real issues and asking the right questions. More often than not, our research is inspired by the availability of research funds that widens or limits the scope of our research.  But we care less about the grounded issues that are most required to be explored, which can prove highly significant to the mass. In many cases, the research activities are undertaken at a superficial level that fulfills academic and professional needs; for instance, to accomplish a degree or to perform the tasks available for a research project that is funded by different funding agencies. Unfortunately, doing research without a profound attachment on the issues often goes astray because such action hardly goes into the depth of the reality, nor do they fulfill the basic purpose of doing research or have any development/policy implications. The outcomes of such research become by-products merely for the sake of doing research, which, in my view is nothing more than wasted potential. Nevertheless, it is easier said than done; we as researchers should not hesitate to focus on the “purpose” of doing research than an “accomplishment”.

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